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  • Chris Anderson

Debussy’s Piano Music

Our composer of the month, Claude Debussy (1862–1918) was a French composer renowned for his innovative and impressionistic approach to music. His piano music is particularly notable for its evocative harmonies, delicate textures, and vivid imagery that often conjures landscapes, moods, and atmospheres.


  • Debussy is often associated with the Impressionist movement, which sought to capture fleeting impressions of light, colour, and atmosphere in visual and musical arts.

  • His piano music embodies Impressionist qualities through its use of rich harmonies, modal scales, and innovative chord progressions.

Use of Harmony and Colour

  • Debussy's piano music often explores new harmonic structures, utilising whole-tone scales, pentatonic scales, and parallel chords to create lush and dreamlike harmonies.

  • He employed the pedal extensively to create overlapping and blending harmonies, producing a unique sense of tonal ambiguity and colour.

Character Pieces

  • Much of Debussy's piano music is organised into character pieces, each with its own distinct mood, title, and evocative imagery.

  • Pieces like "Clair de Lune" (Moonlight), "Arabesque No. 1," and "La fille aux cheveux de lin" (The Girl with the Flaxen Hair) exemplify his ability to convey specific emotions and scenes.


  • Debussy's two sets of "Préludes" for piano are among his most famous works. Each prelude is a self-contained musical miniature, often inspired by a specific idea, image, or poetic concept.

  • The préludes are known for their imaginative titles, such as "Feux d'artifice" (Fireworks), "La cathédrale engloutie" (The Sunken Cathedral), and "Minstrels."

Refined Technique

  • Debussy's piano music demands a refined technique from the performer. His compositions require subtlety, control of dynamics, and a delicate touch to bring out the nuances of his harmonies and textures.

Influence on Later Composers

  • Debussy's piano music had a profound influence on later composers, including Maurice Ravel, Béla Bartók, and Olivier Messiaen, who were inspired by his harmonic language and innovative approach to composition.

Chopin and Symbolism

  • Debussy admired the works of Frédéric Chopin and incorporated Chopin's romantic expressive style into his music. However, he also sought to move beyond traditional tonal and structural conventions.

  • His compositions often embody Symbolist ideals, focusing on evoking emotions, sensations, and ideas rather than traditional forms.

Innovative Notation

  • Debussy's scores sometimes feature unconventional and descriptive notation to guide performers in achieving the desired colours and effects. He used words and phrases in his scores to communicate mood and imagery.

Debussy's piano music is a reflection of his innovative spirit and his desire to explore new sonic landscapes. His compositions remain beloved for their beauty, subtlety, and the evocative world they create within the realm of the piano.

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