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  • Chris Anderson

A Brief History Of The Bassoon

The bassoon is a unique and distinctive woodwind instrument with a long and fascinating history.


  • Early Origins: The bassoon has its roots in earlier double-reeded instruments, such as the dulcian and the curtal, which were used during the Renaissance period in Europe. These instruments had a similar conical shape and a double reed but lacked some of the key features of the modern bassoon.

  • Development in the Baroque Era: During the Baroque era (17th and 18th centuries), the bassoon underwent significant changes and improvements. The instrument evolved into a double-reeded instrument with a long, folded, and curved design. This new design allowed for better control over pitch and tone.

  • Key Innovations: Several key innovations contributed to the development of the modern bassoon:

    • Four-Piece Design: The bassoon was traditionally made in four separate pieces, including the wing joint, boot joint, long joint, and bell. This design allowed for easier transportation and maintenance.

    • Keywork: The addition of key-work to the instrument allowed for greater technical and chromatic flexibility.

    • Bocal: The use of a curved metal bocal (a metal tube that connects the reed to the rest of the instrument) improved the instrument's intonation and tone.

  • Classical and Romantic Periods: The bassoon became a standard member of the orchestra during the Classical and Romantic periods of music. Composers like Mozart, Beethoven, and Wagner incorporated the bassoon into their compositions, often giving it solos and prominent roles in orchestral and chamber music.

  • 20th Century: In the 20th century, the bassoon continued to evolve. Modern materials, such as plastic and synthetic reeds, have been introduced, offering more durability and consistency. Composers from this era, like Stravinsky and Ravel, wrote challenging and innovative music for the bassoon.

  • Contemporary Usage: The bassoon remains an integral part of orchestras, wind ensembles, and chamber groups in contemporary classical music. It is also occasionally featured in popular music genres, including jazz and rock.

  • Variations: While the most common form of the bassoon is the "heckel" system bassoon, other variations exist, such as the "French" and "German" systems, each with its own key-work and tonal characteristics.

  • Bassoon Today: Today, the bassoon continues to be taught and played worldwide. It is known for its distinctive, rich, and expressive sound, capable of conveying a wide range of emotions and moods.


The bassoon's long and complex history has seen it evolve from early prototypes into a versatile and essential instrument in the world of classical and contemporary music. Its unique timbre and technical capabilities make it a valuable asset in orchestral and chamber music settings.

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